The Land Acquisition Act, 2013 is also known as Right to Fair Compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Act,2013 (LAAR). The public land acquisition is a state subject, for any infrastructure or large scale private projects of public benefit (PPP) land can be acquired by central or state government only.
Under the Land Acquisition Act’2013, the consent of the landowners, social impact assessment, acquisition of multi-cropped land, rehabilitation, resettlement, and compensation to landowners are highlighted with certain exceptions. It came into force from January 1st, 2014.
The land required for the government projects needs no public consent, whereas consent of 70% of landowners is required for Public-Private Partnership projects and 80% for private projects. Well irrigated multi-cropped land cannot be acquired beyond a certain limit as specified by the respective state government. Conducting a social impact assessment for land acquisition is mandatory unless and until the project is urgent.
In case of dispute, the state government has to set up rehabilitation and settlement authority under a district court judge or practicing as a lawyer for 7 years. If the land acquired for the project doesn’t commence in 5 years, the land has to be returned to the original landowner or the land bank.
Compensation under the Land Acquisition Act, 2013 depend on market rates on the land in that vicinity. For a rural area, it is four times the market rates and for the urban area, it is two times. In case someone is not satisfied with the compensation they can approach the Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Authority.